The second biggest cyberthreat identified by ENISA are Trojans (which contain backdoor capabilities) and Worm malware programs (which can self-replicate and redistribute themselves with devastating effect). Worms and Trojans are used by cybercriminals to pull off sophisticated cyberscams involving theft of user credentials and personal data and by governments for cyberespionage.
Code injection is the third top threat - in recent years an increasing amount of attacks and data breaches have been conducted against web applications using well-known attack techniques such as SQL injection (“SQLi”) and cross-site scripting (“XSS”). These threats, which are popular amongst hacktivist groups, attempt to extract data, steal credentials and take control of the targeted webserver.
Other cyberthreats include exploit kits, botnets, denial-of-service attacks, phishing and spam. ENISA emphasises that it is not just cybercriminals acting as the threat agents but also corporations attempting to gain competitive advantage, disgruntled employees, and terrorists who have expanded their activities into cyberspace.
In an era where social media has flourished, the report highlights the vulnerability of technologies such as cloud computing and big data sets, where the concentration of vast amounts of data in a few logical locations makes an attractive target for threat agents. ENISA suggests that many threats can be contained if sufficient risk management is undertaken and appropriate security measures are implemented.